Marketing Concept in 1980-2010
In 1981, Boom and Bitler added 3 P, namely people (People), process (Process) and physical evidence (Physical Evidence) (Kotler et al., 2010, Marketing 3.0, Jakarta: Erlangga). This addition is to accommodate businesses in the service sector. Products from services are not visible. The business strives for the services to be seen, so that the market segment is realized by structuring the people who serve, standardizing plus the customization of the process and showing physical evidence.
In 1984, Philip Kotler added two more P in the 4 P, namely Politics (politics) and Public Opinion (public opinion) (Kotler et al., 2010, Marketing 3.0, Jakarta: Erlangga). Kotler added these two things because politics and public opinion helped determine the smoothness of sales, more so when entering foreign markets. When politics does not allow a product to circulate, however good the product, price, location and promotion, the product will not be able to reach the market. Public opinion from the association and the public in the mass media also determines the acceptance of a product.
In the 1990s, when the internet began to expand, mass media advertising was still quite strong. The internet was allegedly able to replace the role of mass media, but in 2000 many were disappointed with internet achievements. Many stock-based company website prices fall. This event was dubbed the dotcom bubble. Dotcom balloon. The impression is large, but the contents are empty, and one day it will erupt.
After 2000, the role of the internet strengthened since search engines and social media used algorithms that were able to adjust advertisements and campaigns with viewers’ interests. Algorithms are also able to detect their interest trends so that this gives input in the preparation of new products. Advertising spending on the internet is increasing. In 2004, Madison Avenue mass media advertising center experienced a decline in its advertising industry.
In 2010, the use of smart phones connected to the internet expanded throughout the world. With the popularity of smart phones, marketing through the internet is able to reach many viewers. The use of mass media is getting smaller in the community than the internet.
It is not just the transfer of marketing communication channels without changing the character of marketing. The move changes the character of marketing. The development of marketing is driven by competition between marketers themselves. They compete marketing skills. On interactive internet media, marketers compete to optimize the features that the internet has for marketing purposes. On the other side of the viewer or target market, viewers for greater authority to pay attention to or ignore marketing messages. Dynamic interaction between fellow marketers and viewers also changes the character of marketing.