Freud Theory of Need
According to Sigmund Freud, in humans, there is an unconscious psychic power that greatly influences human behavior. Awareness has little effect compared to unseen unconsciousness. Even the perpetrators themselves do not know and cannot state. Between unconsciousness and consciousness, there is a pre-consciousness, which is something that, if reminded, can still be realized. It’s like an iceberg, which looks little and small, but beneath the surface of the water is a large chunk of ice.
In addition to the three levels of consciousness, there are three psychic components, according to Freud. Ie, id, ego, super ego. All three have a different will and attractiveness affects humans. Id works with the principle of pleasure. Humans want to be happy and avoid misery. Id is childish. He wants to be happy without caring about the reality and needs of others. Id like a baby, if you want pleasure, just cry. Fun includes eating, drinking, love, and sex. Adults also have an ID, but are muted, weighing their possibilities in reality and their appropriateness. The ego works with the principle of reality. Reality gives the limits of desire and also the opportunity to realize desires through a certain path. The ego also dampens the id, that if you insist on the principle of pleasure, there will be a bad risk that occurs. Therefore, in adult humans, do not just obey fun. Superego works with the principle of having to follow moral demands without regard to reality. Superego mirrors the internalization of cultural rules taught by family, school, religion and society. The Superego provides an ideal standard and consequently provides guilt.
The meaning of differentiating pre-conscious awareness and unconsciousness for marketers is that the desires and needs expressed by someone are not complete stories. There is still a need at the level of pre-conscious and unconscious. To know the pre-conscious and unconscious needs, the psychologist has an anamnesis method (interpretation of personal biography), free association (the patient is asked any story in a relaxed atmosphere), dream analysis, interpretation of symbols, interpretation of slippage. Marketers may not have time to learn the technique and apply it to consumers. Marketers can do a laddering technique. This technique is based on the theoretical view that purchasing decisions are based on different levels of awareness. People buy products, usually the reasons given for the attributes of products and services. The attribute becomes selected based on the consequences of the attribute on him. Hope about the benefits of the product on him. Hope about what the product does to him. The answer to the benefits of the product will reveal information about the values he follows. Values are the real reason for product selection. More useful values help predict consumer behavior and needs.
The questioning technique is as follows
• “Why did you choose the product? The answer is usually about attributes. This is at the level of consciousness.
• “why are attributes good / bad for you? Describes the consequences and benefits of attributes for him
• “Why are these benefits important to you / your business? Revealing the values adopted which are the reason for the purchase decision
The above question does not have to be applied directly. Also, calculate whether the interviewee feels comfortable. For example, the question “why are attributes good / bad for you?”, Can be delivered by rotating, you often use the product? If the product does not exist, what do you do?
Freud contributed that a need was not fully expressed in words. From there, Kotler formulated various needs based on the level of clarity.
1. Required requirements (motorcycle that is not expensive)
2. Real needs (he needs a motorcycle that has low maintenance costs, not just buying costs)
3. Needs not to be said (He wants good service)
4. Additional needs (if fulfilled, he will be happy and grateful)
5. The need for secrets (he wants to look cool with the motorcycle)