Herzberg Theory of Need

Frederick Herzberg conducted research on 203 engineers and accountants in the Pittburg area and found two factors about need. The first factor is satisfying (satisfier) ​​or a factor of rental (disatisfier). This satisfying factor is a factor that, if it exists, will make people satisfied. In marketing, this factor is a factor that if any, people are encouraged to buy.

The second factor is the tenant. If there are factors of rent, people are disappointed, complain and protest. If there are no rental factors, people are not disappointed, but that does not mean being satisfied. Satisfaction and tenants are two different things. To treat disappointment, it can’t be by adding a satisfying factor. Conversely, to get satisfaction, it cannot be done by eliminating the factor of rent.

Thus the marketer has two agendas in marketing, which is to seriously eliminate the factor of rent and increase the satisfaction factor. It can’t be just one. The loss of the rental factor does not seduce people to buy, but can make the person to cancel the purchase. Suppose he was interested in a chair with a good design, but he later recognized the weakness of construction. Purchase canceled. What are the rental factors and what are the satisfaction factors. The leasing factor does not meet the quality and service standards in accordance with what is generally applicable in the industry. Suppose there is no product warranty (if it becomes a standard in the product category), product construction, fast service, the product functions properly. While satisfying factors are factors that provide more benefits than competitors and exceed industry standards.

Marketing Mix 4C Robert Lauterborn

In 1990, Robert Lauterborn offered another version of the marketing mix that emphasized the consumer’s perspective. The marketing mix of Jerome McCarthy’s version which contains 4P is more impressed by the point of view of the manufacturer or marketer. Lauterborn’s marketing mix formulation is as follows

• Customer Value (something that is valuable to consumers) instead of Products

• Cost instead of Price

• Convenience instead of Place

• Communication instead of Promotion

 

The background to the emergence of this idea was that more and more goods were produced and unsold, in 1990. Robert Lauterborn acknowledged the important role of McCarthy’s version 4P marketing mix that blends the art of advertising and management. According to Lauterborn, 4P is more impressive the point of view of producers, not consumers. Maybe McCarthy didn’t mean that, but the person who studied McCarthy’s ideas in depth would easily misinterpret. The misinterpretation is because the term used is more of a producer’s perspective.

Customer Value (Benefits for Consumers)

Forget products, learn the needs and desires of the target market. Neoclassical economics assumes that products create their own markets, because human needs are unlimited. Now that is no longer valid, when production is abundant. The consumer only buys something he wants. The seller needs to understand in advance what is the needs and desires of the consumer, then design the product. By actively adjusting supply to the needs, there is no loss of production.

Cost

Forget prices, understand the costs and sacrifices of consumers. Consumer costs are not only the official price. Price tag is only one part of consumer costs. Travel back and forth to the store is a sacrifice of time, effort, cost. Guilt also includes sacrifice, if for example the product offered is contrary to the conscience of the consumer, for example, the company’s production process is not environmentally friendly. The best offer for consumers is not the best cake and the cheapest price, the factor of consideration is complex. If the cheap tasty cake contains pork oil, Muslims consider it worthless because of the huge sacrifice costs

Convenience

Forget the location. Now to access product offerings, consumers don’t have to go anywhere. They can open the internet, search for the desired product and order. Food messages can be done via the internet. The location is important because it provides convenient access to products and services. Now convenience and ease of access can be obtained through other means, namely the internet and delivery system. In Indonesia, companies do not have to prepare delivery services. Online motorbikes provide delivery and purchase facilities.

Communication (Two-Way Communication)

Forget promotion. The important thing is communication. Promotion tends to be one-way. Communication is two-way, both from consumers and sellers. Adjustment between value offers and consumer needs requires two-way communication. With two-way communication, two parties adjust each other. This communication concept is in accordance with the millennium era. Because the nature of internet media is two-way communication.

Marketing Mix and Positioning

Although the positioning concept is more popular later than the marketing mix, the marketing mix will be more effective with positioning. Positioning is a promise to yourself to provide benefits to certain target markets. The promise then became a guideline for formulating products, prices, locations and promotions. The promise was delivered and fulfilled through the marketing mix. That way the marketing mix will convey the brand and company message consistently, clearly and evocatively. Your marketing mix is ​​designed to follow to strengthen the predetermined positioning.

Designing the product is preceded by determining the target market. From determining the target market, it seems that what is the problem that the target market wants to solve. Products are designed to help target markets solve their problems.

The product was designed to follow positioning. Positioning contains imagery that offers benefits and differentiates it from competitors’ offers or other solutions. Positioning is formulated in such a way that the opportunity for the target market to choose your product.

If the product positioning is fashionable hijab syar’i for female students in Jogja, then the marketing mix product starts from the product, location, price, and promotion to adjust to the predetermined positioning. The design of the hijab is new, fresh, not old-fashioned. Location adjusts to the target market. The price is affordable by the target market, while not being cheap for them. Promotion of fashionable hijab syar’i themes and through the usual communication channels they use.

So the marketing mix is ​​closely related to positioning.

Marketing Mix and Positioning

Although the positioning concept is more popular later than the marketing mix, the marketing mix will be more effective with positioning. Positioning is a promise to yourself to provide benefits to certain target markets. The promise then became a guideline for formulating products, prices, locations and promotions. The promise was delivered and fulfilled through the marketing mix. That way the marketing mix will convey the brand and company message consistently, clearly and evocatively. Your marketing mix is ​​designed to follow to strengthen the predetermined positioning.

Designing the product is preceded by determining the target market. From determining the target market, it seems that what is the problem that the target market wants to solve. Products are designed to help target markets solve their problems.

The product was designed to follow positioning. Positioning contains imagery that offers benefits and differentiates it from competitors’ offers or other solutions. Positioning is formulated in such a way that the opportunity for the target market to choose your product.

If the product positioning is fashionable hijab syar’i for female students in Jogja, then the marketing mix product starts from the product, location, price, and promotion to adjust to the predetermined positioning. The design of the hijab is new, fresh, not old-fashioned. Location adjusts to the target market. The price is affordable by the target market, while not being cheap for them. Promotion of fashionable hijab syar’i themes and through the usual communication channels they use.

So the marketing mix is ​​closely related to positioning.