The marketing mix component experiences development over time. In 1964, Neil H Borden wrote about The Concept of the Marketing Mix “in the Journal of Advertising Research, June 1964. About elements of the marketing mix for companies.
There are 12 elements of the marketing mix
1. Product Planning — policies and procedures regarding
a) Product lines offered: quality, design and so on.
b) The intended market – to whom the goods are sold, where they are, and how much they are.
c) New product policies – research and development programs.
2. Price – policies and procedures regarding
a) application of price levels.
b) even or odd prices
c) price policy, for example prices for units, prices for many purchases, prices for maintenance and so on.
d) profit margins for companies and traders.
3. Brands — policies and procedures regarding
a) trademark selection.
b) Brand policy — product brand or company / product group brand.
c) sales with private labels or without brands.
4. Distribution channels – policies and procedures regarding
a) Pathways between companies and consumers.
b) selection of wholesalers and retailers.
c) Trade cooperation business.
5. Personal sales — policies and procedures about
a) the method and division of sales tasks above
2) large traders.
6. Advertising – policies and procedures regarding
a) Amount of advertising spending.
b) Fill in the ad.
1) Image of the desired product.
2) The desired image of the company.
3) advertising targets, merchants or consumers.
7. Promotion — policies and procedures about
a) Resource allocation for price cuts and promotional channels.
b) promotional equipment for users and traders.
8. Packaging — policies and procedures about
a) Formulation of packaging and labeling.
9. Administration of goods — policies and procedures regarding
a) Resource allocation in the arrangement of goods that assist sales.
b) A safe method of structuring goods.
10. Services – policies and procedures regarding
a) provision of services needed.
11. Handling physical matters, namely warehousing, stock and transportation.
12. Fact-finding and analysis — policies and procedures regarding
a) safeguarding, analyzing and utilizing facts in marketing operations.